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AAA Server

Remote user authentication system. An AAA server handles the following tasks. Authentication: determines the identity of the users. Authorization: determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected to the network. Accounting: keeps track of the users' network activity.

 

AAC

AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) is a standardized digital audio compression method. AAC is also known as MPEG-4 AAC because it is included in the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) MPEG-4 standard.

 

AAL

AAL converges packets from upper layers into ATM cells as defined by ITU-T, ETSI and the ATM Forum. AAL has several service types and classes of operation to accommodate different types of classes.

 

Access Point

A device that allows wireless-equipped computers and other devices to communicate with a wired network. Also used to expand the range of a wireless network.

 

Adapter

A device that adds network functionality to your PC or other device, such as a printserver.

 

Ad-hoc

A group of wireless devices communicating directly with each other (peer-to-peer) without the use of an access point.

 

A-end (IPSec)

This is the end of a VPN tunnel opposite the Z-end (see also Z-end).

 

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

An encryption method that supports these key sizes: 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit.

 

A-Law

A-Law and Mu-Law are Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) techniques that dictate forms of compression for audio signals. They are widely-used standard methods of coding voice as they improve signal-to-noise ratio without increasing the amount of data. Mu-Law is a standard in North America; A-Law in Europe.

 

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)

A circuit designed for a specific application, as opposed to a general purpose circuit, such as a microprocessor. Using ASICs as components in electronic devices can improve performance, reduce power consumption, increase safety and reduce costs.

 

Auto-Negotiation 

A Protocol defined in the Ethernet standard that allows devices at either end of a link segment to advertise and negotiate modes of operation such as the speed of the link, half- or full-duplex operation and full-duplex flow control.

 

Auto-MDIX 

A protocol which allows two Ethernet devices to negotiate their use of the Ethernet TX and RX cable pairs. This allows two Ethernet devices with MDI-X or MDI connectors to connect without using a crossover cable. This feature is also known as Auto-crossover.